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Strength and Deployment of the British army. The dilemma for military planners was how to use the forces for three different purposes: home defence against possible invasion from France, garrisoning and defence of the empire, and rapid deployment of an expeditionary force.

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Red coat is a term often used to refer to British infantryman, because of the colour of the uniforms formerly worn by the majority of regiments. In 1645, the Parliament passed the New Model Army ordinance. The infantry regiments wore coats of Venetian red with white facings. ("There is no basis for the historical myth that red coats were favoured because they did not show blood stains. Blood does in fact show on red clothing as a black stain." -

Built in the 1890s, the Venetian gothic building was a private men’s club until 2007. In 2015, it reopened as a hotel with the building’s original details meticulously preserved and restored, including floor-to-ceiling fireplaces, original chandeliers and light fixtures, mosaic-tiled floors and stained-glass windows.

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Venue Chicago Athletic Association Knowing that we’d be hosting a selection of foodservice, hospitality, and design thought leaders, it was important to select a venue that captured the spirit of the event and provided high design, great food and exceptional customer service. We chose the Chicago Athletic Association Hotel Built in the 1890s, the Venetian gothic building was a private men’s club until 2007. In 2015, it reopened as a hotel with the building’s original details meticulously preserved and restored, including floor-to-ceiling fireplaces, original chandeliers and light fixtures, mosaic-tiled floors and stained-glass windows. Two of the hotel’s three restaurants were nominated for the James Beard Foundation Award for Best Restaurant Design or Renovation in North America in 2016. Cherry Circle Room, the hotel’s fine-dining restaurant, took home the honors. Cindy's The other James Beard nominee for Best Restaurant Design, Cindy’s rooftop restaurant and bar, provided the perfect setting for our private party for speakers and attendees. Fresh, modern and classic all at once, Cindy’s features a domed glass ceiling and a Great Lakes beach house ambiance. An outdoor patio offers a panoramic view of Chicago's skyline, parks and Lake Michigan. Executive Chef Christian Ragano, former Chef de Cuisine at NoMi, and his team brought modern twists to classic comfort foods at our exclusive after party.

Just as we are today witnessing the disintegration of institutions such as the family, as well as political and religious institutions, under conditions of economic disintegration, so, too, in the first twenty years of the Fourteenth century, the Church, the mainstay of feudal society, itself began to disintegrate. The immediate issue was temporal (i.e., secular) versus papal authority. In response to the attempt of France’s King Philip IV (the Fair) to levy taxes on the clergy without the consent of the Pope, Pope Boniface VIII issued a Bull in 1296 forbidding the clergy to pay any form of tax to any lay ruler. In 1302, Boniface issued a second Bull asserting papal authority in the most absolute terms: “It is necessary to salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff.” Philip responded with a council to judge the Pope on charges including heresy, blasphemy, murder, sodomy, simony, and sorcery. When Boniface then drew up a Bull to excommunicate the King, on September 7, 1303, agents of the King seized the 86-year-old Pope in his summer retreat near Rome to bring him before a council. After three days, Boniface was freed, but died within a month. A French Pope was elected as Clement V, who settled in Avignon, France, rather than going to Rome, thus beginning what became known as the “Babylonian Exile.” He would be followed by six French popes in succession from 1305-78. The false-axiomatic assumption which led to the Church’s disintegration, was its concept of itself as a theocratic, supra-national government, having supreme authority over the state, including the fraudulent papal claim to exercise the right to crown the Emperor. (The document upon which this claim was made, the so-called “Donation of Constantine,” was later proved to be a forgery.) The Church’s maintenance of its Papal Estates in Italy, over which it held feudal suzerainty, also led the Church to engage in balance-of-power politics and feudal warfare in its own name, in opposition to the emergence of an Italian nation-state. Moreover, so enmeshed was the Church with the feudal system, that the Vatican bureaucracy, the Curia, and the Vatican’s finances, were dominated by the most powerful feudal families. As long as the Church insisted on this temporal power, it undermined its own proper universal moral authority. With the papacy reduced to a tool of the French crown, the order among nations also rapidly deteriorated into a prolonged state of warfare. When Philip IV died in 1314, he was succeeded by his three sons, Louis X, Philip V, and Charles IV, each of whom reigned less than six years and died aged 27, 28, and 33, respectively, each without leaving a male successor. Philip of Valois, the son of a brother of Philip IV, became king. Edward III of England, son of Philip IV’s daughter, Isabel, had also made a claim to the French throne, which was rejected. In 1337, Philip confiscated Aquitaine, a French province which the English claimed as their own, whereupon Edward III announced himself the rightful king of France. At the time, the population of France was 21 million, five times England’s slightly more than 4 million. Nevertheless, England invaded France in 1339, thus beginning the Hundred Years War (1337-1453), in which both sides were manipulated by the Venetian-controlled Black Guelph Florentine banking families.

1. Great Britain, Politics, Military Expenditure. - - - Napoleon's invasion of Britain. > - - - Great Britain's military expenditure. > - - - Britain and the coalitions against France. > - - - Building the empire. > 2. The British Army. - - - King George III. > - - - Duke of York. > - - - Duke of Wellington. > - - - Privates and Officers. > - - - Strength and Deployment. > - - - Training and Quality. > - - - Discipline. > - - - Deserters and Lost Colors. > 3. British Infantry "The Redcoats". - - - Organization - - - Uniforms. - - - Foot Guard - - - Light Infantry - - - Scots - - - Irish . Picture: British Foot Guards, by Dmitrii Zgonnik of Ukraine. At the siege of Cuidad Rodrigo, in 1812 Gen. Picton gave this particular address to the 88th Regiment "It is not my intention to expend any powder this evening. We'll do this business with the cold iron." The French were surprised by the rigid class lines that divided the British soldiers from their officers. There is a record of Wellington coming upon aristocratic officers making their men carry them over a river. The Duke ordered the soldiers to drop them on the spot.


Averra Admin 1970, FED Summit, Viewed 22 February 2017, <>.

British Infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 1970, Viewed 22 February 2017, <>.

Lessons of 14th Century Dark Age 1970, Viewed 22 February 2017, <>.